Makler ist wie Verkäufer oder Vermieter zur Information über Energiewerte verpflichtet

Die Mehrzahl aller Hauskäufe wird durch Makler angebahnt. Ähnliches gilt für Wohnraummietverträge. Nicht der Eigentümer oder Vermieter, sondern der Immobilienmakler bestimmt in den meisten Fällen, welche Angaben in einem ersten Angebotstext enthalten sind. Als der Gesetzgeber die „Verordnung über energiesparenden Wärmeschutz und energiesparende Anlagentechnik“ (EnEV) erließ, hatte er bei der Zuordnung von Informationspflichten zunächst nur an Immobilieneigentümer und Vermieter gedacht und diese im Wortlaut des § 16 a EnEV ausdrücklich erwähnt. In der Rechtsprechung hat sich inzwischen die Meinung durchgesetzt, dass neben Verkäufern und Vermietern auch Immobilienmakler als eigentliche „Herrn des Geschehens“ verpflichtet sein sollen, die Informationsvorschrift des § 16 a EnEV einzuhalten.

Gerichtsurteile verpflichten Makler

Das Oberlandesgericht Köln hat am 09.03.2017 einen Beschluss verkündet, der den Immobilienmakler dazu verpflichtet, beim Anbieten eines Kaufobjekts konkrete Angaben zum Energieverbrauch zu machen, wie sie in § 16a EnEV vorgeschrieben sind (Aktenzeichen 6 U 202/16). Das Oberlandesgericht Bamberg kam am 05.04.2017 in seiner Entscheidung zum Aktenzeichen 3 U 102/16 zum selben Ergebnis. Die Richter in Köln und Bamberg gaben den Anträgen der Bundesumwelthilfe, die als Klägerin aufgetreten war, die jeweiligen Makler auf Unterlassung ihrer Angebotsformulierung zu verklagen, in beiden Fällen in der Berufungsinstanz statt. Makler müssen also bereits im ersten Angebot Angaben zur Heizungsanlage, zum Baujahr, zum Energieverbrauch und zum Energieausweis machen.

Zeitige Information über Energiewerte ist Ziel der EnEV

Der Sinn und die Zielrichtung der Energieeinsparverordnung würden unterlaufen, wenn nur der Verkäufer oder Vermieter, nicht aber der Makler die Informationspflichten des § 16a EnEV zu erfüllen hätte. Ergebnis wäre, dass Energiespar-Argumente bei der ersten Auswahl von für ihn in Betracht kommenden Objekten durch den möglichen Käufer zunächst keine Rolle spielen können. Ist der Makler nicht zur Angabe von konkreten Daten zum Energieverbrauch verpflichtet, wird er sich der Mühe nicht unterziehen. Die Informationspflicht würde dann erstmals eintreten, wenn Käufer und Verkäufer oder Mieter und Vermieter selbst in Kontakt kommen. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt hat der Käufer oder der Mieter möglicherweise bereits wichtige Entscheidungen getroffen, ohne über die Energiedaten seines Wunschobjekts informiert worden zu sein.

Damit ist das Ziel, günstige Energiesparwerte zu einem wichtigen Entscheidungskriterium bei Hauskäufen oder Abschluss von Wohnraummietverträgen zu machen, nicht einzuhalten. Nur dann, wenn der Makler verpflichtet wird, schon in seinem ersten, der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellten Angebot vollständige und korrekte Angaben zum Energieverbrauch zu machen, werden Käufer diese Informationen von Anfang an in ihre Entscheidung mit einfließen lassen.

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